Determination of Industrial Steel Grating Floor Slip Resistance
SRT-01: Ramp test is used to determinate the slip resistance performance.
Ramp test is used to determine and assess the slip resistance properties of industrial type flooring intended for use in water wet areas. In this test, we will get the angle of inclination, which is used to assess the slip resistance classification. in the test, the tested pieces can be welded steel grating, chequer plate, expanded metal sheet, metal plank, GRP grating and other grating types.
All the test process is on the flooring that is subjected to a continuous stream of portable water. An operator moves backwards and forwards in an upright position on the tested flooring. Increase the test flooring starting from the horizontal up to the point at which the operator becomes insecure. The point and the ground will form an angle, which is angle of inclination.
The operator shall include at least two trained adults. One is the experiencer, who complete the whole test on the tested pieces. The other is operator, who assist the experiencer and operate the test flooring.
The experiencer shall be protected from falling by means of a safety device, which permits the operator to move freely on the flooring being tested. The operators shall be familiar with the test procedure and specific apparatus to be used prior to any tests being carried out.
The experiencer shall wear a pair of flat-soled shoes, without a heel soled with standard simulated shoe sole rubber.
Remove the dust on the shoe sole. The shoe sole shall be plane-ground to an even finish using fresh P400 silicon carbide paper in an orbital sander. Tim four S rubber in 3 mm sheet form and adhere them to the sole.
The test device is a level and torsion free platform at least 600 mm wide and 2000 mm long, which shall be able to adjusted to gradients between 0° and 45° in the longitudinal direction preferably by a centre pivot. The drive unit achieves a platform angular lifting speed of maximum 1°/s, so that at least 45s are required to adjust to the maximum angle of 45°. The lifting stroke is controlled by the operator. An angle indicator on the test device displays the platform angle from horizontal at an accuracy of 0.5° ± 0.2°. The angle indicator cannot be seen by the experiencer during testing. For safety reasons, the experiencer shall wear a suitable fall arrest harness and railings are fitted along the longitudinal sides of the test apparatus. A second operator is used to record the angle and monitor the flow of the contaminant.
The test fluid used shall be potable water. The test fluid is pumped at 6 l/min to wet the whole surface of the test floor. The temperature of the solution shall be between 15 °C and 23°C.
The test piece shall be a minimum of 1000 mm long × 500 mm wide and shall be taken from the flooring to be tested. The flooring to be tested shall be fixed onto level base-plated made of a load-bearing, warp free material. The surface to be tested shall be clearly recognizable as such, or be marked as such.
Flooring shall be positioned in such a way that the direction of minimum slip resistance corresponds to the direction of movement of the experiencer. (for open bar gratings, the worst case situation will be travelling along the bearing bar.)
Floorings, which are rectangular in shape, shall be positioned in such a way that the short edge is parallel to the rotary axis of the test apparatus.
The upper surface of the flooring shall be cleaned before testing. You can use the bristle brush to scrub the manufacturing residues, dirt and other contaminant.
The test piece shall be prepared to correspond to the practical use of flooring. If mild steel floors are tested, the results of both operators shall be generated at the same time due to potential rusting of the test piece.
Ensure a continuous and uniform stream of test fluid at 6 ± 1 l/min over the test piece during the test.
The experiencer shall move backwards and forwards twice in an upright position on the tested piece flooring without pausing at the top and bottom and then whilst stationary. It is a circulation of test. During test, it is important that the experiencer looks down at their feet during test. Each step of foot should be lifted clear of the test surface. Taking steps should correspond to approximately half the experiencer's foot length and the step rates shall be 144 ± 10 steps/min.
The operator increases the platform angle by approximately 1° and repeats the test. The process is repeated until the angle of inclination (the critical angle) at which the experiencer reaches the limit of safe movement (i.e. A definite slip occurs) is reached. The critical angle shall be determined 12 times. The procedure is then repeated by the second experiencer.
Discard the highest and the lowest value for each operator. Calculate the arithmetic mean from the remaining 10 individual values for each experiencer. If the two mean values are disagreed by more than 2°, one of the experiencer shall repeat the test. Calculate the CoF by taking the tangent of the mean angle fro each experiencer and generating an average CoF generated by each experiencer.
Calibration of the apparatus shall be based on the following method.
A calibrated inclinometer shall be used. Once a year, the ramp is calibrated by the following method. Take the ramp from the horizontal up to a 40° angle, in 10° increments. The read out, at each increment, from the ramp shall be within 0.2° of the calibrated inclinometer.
Note: The ramp should be carried out the standard safety checks before it is put into use. The safety checks is determined by an individual laboratory risk assessment.
Starting with the ramp in a horizontal position, using a calibrated inclinometer, incline the ramp 20°. The read out, at each increment, from the ramp shall be within 0.2° of the calibrated inclinometer.
SRT-02: Plain surface welded steel grating industrial flooring.
SRT-03: Serrated surface press-locked steel grating industrial flooring.
SRT-04: Stainless steel chequer plate industrial flooring.
SRT-05: Expanded metal sheet industrial flooring.
- The test report shall indicate the following:
- Reference to the International standard BS 4592-0.
- Designation, manufacturer, laboratory reference classification.
- Surface characteristics (e.g. Plain or profile).
- Mean angle of inclination rounded to the nearest 0.1°.
- Test location.
- Any deviation from this test that might have affected the results.
- Date of test.
- Slip classification. (see Table 1.)
- Examples of various industrial type flooring with anti-slip results. (see Table 2)
|Unsuitable for wet conditions||Less than 0.4|
|Slip resistant||0.4 to less than 0.6|
|Enhanced slip resistance||0.6 or more|
|Floor type||Reference||CoF||Roughness measurement (Rz)
|Grid floors||(30 × 3 bearing bars at 33 centers and cross bars at 50 centers)|
|Low carbon steel||Plain top bearing bars, with 6 nominal square twisted cross bars||0.44||14.30|
|Forge welded||Machine serrated top bearing bars, with 6 nominal square twisted cross bars||0.66||12.01|
|Mill serrated top bearing bars, with 6 nominal square twisted cross bars||0.66||30.57|
|Grid floors||30 × 3 bearing bars at 33 centers and cross bar at 33 centers|
|Low carbon steel||Plain top bearing bars, with 10 × 2 plain top cross bars||0.65||28.19|
|Pressure locked||Serrated top bearing bars, with 10 × 2 plain top cross bars||0.84+||16.99|
|Serrated top bearing bars, with 10 × 2 serrated top cross bars||0.69||15.55|
|Grid floors||30 × 3 bearing bars at 44 centers and cross bars at 22 centers|
|Low carbon steel||Plain top bearing bars, with 10 × 2 plain top cross bars||0.41||10.83|
|Grid floors||30 × 3 bearing bars at 44 centers and 9.5 diameter. Cross bars at 22 centers|
|Pultruded GRP||8/3 thick "I" type plain grooved top bearing bars||0.59||58.65|
|8/6 thick "I" type gritted grooved top bearing bars||0.84+||O.R.|
|Grid floors||25 deep bearing bars at 40 centers and 9.5 diameter. Cross bars at 22 centers.|
|Pultruded GRP||8/3 thick, "I" type plain grooved top bearing bars||0.59||O.R.|
|8/6 thick, "I" type gritted grooved top bearing bars||0.84+||O.R.|
|Metal planks||50 deep × 2.5 thick planks|
|Low carbon steel||250 wide with plain parallel slots and perforated top surface||0.67||4.93|
|Cold formed||240 wide with serrated slots and top perforated surface||0.84||14.52|
|Plate floors||6 deep over plain plate|
|Raised five bar tread pattern chequer||0.28||3.55|
|Plate floors||10 deep over plain plate|
|GRP||Plain top with gritted surface||0.84+||O.R.|
|Raised diamond pattern chequer||0.57||10.76|
|Perforated plate||Long knuckle|
|Low carbon steel||Heavy duty expanded metal||0.67||O.R.|
|Note: O.R. Denotes too high to measure (i.e. Beyond measurable range).|